Hot Rome alternative chicks

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The experiment was conducted to compare and evaluate the hatchability and survival rate of a sand incubator and natural hen incubation technique and to estimate the profitability of the two different incubation techniques. On the first batch, the net return per eggs in sand incubation was On the 1st year run the net return was estimated and can incurred by sand incubator which make it sustainable in profitability for the smallholder farmers by making high income for the next seven years of production period.

Finally in order to improve the performance of the hatchery traits before the technology adopt to the farmers intensive adoptive research should be conduct and also training of smallholder poultry producers in the hatchery management of sand incubator is very crucial.

Poultry production is an area of animal agriculture, where human food production is relatively fast, initial capital investment is low and use can be made of available household labour. In a developing country like Ethiopia, poultry production in rural areas is of great importance as a prime supplier of eggs and meat and as a source of income, especially to women Demeke, However due to the low productivity poor egg production performance, slow growth rate and late sexual maturity and broodiness for an extended period limit the advantage obtain from this sector.

Past attempts that have been made in the country to improve the production and productivity of local birds through upgrading distribution of exotic birds and cross breeding Tadelle and Peters, Hot Rome alternative chicks exotic breeds generally do have high productivity in terms of eggs and meat production performance.

However, the limit for these breeds is that they did not hatch and produce day old chicken by their own due to lack of broadness and farmers forced to use the local broody hens, which are not enough to meet the actual demand of farmers and producers who want to carry out small-scale operations.

A broody hen can hardly hatch 10 eggs in good management practice Roy et al. The much known techniques to hatch improved chicken breed eggs is using modern electric incubator. Modern electric incubators are equipped with automatic devices and generally used by the commercial hatcheries for hatching chicken eggs to meet the huge demand for quality chicks all over the world particularly in the developed countries. Mini-hatcheries can be constructed from cheap materials available locally, such as rice husk, quilts and sand, to retain heat.

The incubators can be easily made using readily available skills and tools. Mini-hatcheries are an incubator which is made from locally available materials to incubate chicken or duck eggs. Min-hatchery incubators have been used to hatch chicken and duck eggs in Egypt and China and Bangladesh. However, the system was not widely adopted by most of developing countries Hassan, Surprisingly little is known about the efficiency of mini-hatchery like sand incubation and rice husk incubation.

In Ethiopia improved chicken breed which have been distributed through packages to farmers for the purpose of improving the production status of local chicken and also to generate income by selling their products but the farmers do not have any kind of mini hatchery technology that could be hatch a of chicks other than use of local chicken to hatch egg, because the improved chicken do not incubate and hatch their egg due to low maternity instinct and broodiness.

Despite increasing demand for meat, egg and qualities chicks, the mini-hatchery operation in the country is not well known and organized. Therefore, it has become necessary to find a method of egg incubation that is less risky and less Hot Rome alternative chicks, which are affordable and be adopted equally by all sections of urban and rural people through better utilization of existing resources in the country.

Therefore, the current study is aimed to evaluate and estimate the suitability, performance and profitability of the sand incubator technique by comparing with the local broody hen hatching technique. Precinct of study site: The experiment was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University. The average mean maximum and minimum temperature are The mean annual rainfall of the area is mm NMSA.

Experimental animal and materials Hatching eggs: A total of fertile eggs from the breeds of White leghorn were purchased from Hawassa poultry breeding and distribution center. Before setting, all eggs were properly clean with mild luke-warm water solution of savlon a mild disinfectant. Shape index of hatch able eggs were measured. The broody hens were divided randomly into three replications each replication had 7 broody hens for incubation of seven hatching eggs.

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Before incubation, all broody hens were treated to remove both internal and external parasites. A complete layer grower ration containing Sand incubation techniques: A sand incubator was modified and produced wood workshop which was constructed with materials such as wood, metal plates, jute sacks, black garment, cotton and sand. Before and after setting the eggs, the incubator was as thoroughly fumigated by using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde as per recommendations.

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Turning of eggs was done by rolling with a clean hand with gentle circular motion 6 times in 24 h at 4 h interval up to 18 days of incubation period. In both treatments, the candling of eggs was done by using torch-light on the 7th and 14th day of incubation.

All clear and early dead embryos were removed after each candling Fig. Data collection: Data was collected for fertility, embryonic mortality, dead-in-shells, abnormal chicks hatched, normal chicks hatched, day-old chick weight, survival of day-old chick, hatchability were considered in both methods of incubation techniques. All hatched chicks were weighed individually on a treatment basis with by using sensitive balance with 0. Total estimation of cost and return for each incubation techniques budget analysis was made for each incubation techniques. The of egg set for sand incubator and broody hen is different due to the different holding capacity of eggs for broody hen and sand incubator.

But numerically higher hatchability percentage was recorded from broody hen Dolberg et al.

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In spite of the satisfactory hatchability rate from sand incubator the hatchability rate declines we goes up from the source of heat distributor sand tray to the top 2nd and 3rd tray. This is due to ununiformed heat distribution through the incubator box which was at arrange of Embryonic mortality caused by Hot Rome alternative chicks ventilation, heat, humidity and vice versa Dafwang et al. Broody hen leaves their nest to search for feed and water at this time it might be a fluctuation in temperature which lead to embryo mortality especially after the 13th day of incubation when the embryonic development become faster.

However, in our case to maintain humidity in sand incubator was very difficult due to lack of appropriate hatchery room and provinces humidity condition may cause a severe increase in the proportion of embryo dead-in-shell. Broody hens are experienced enough to maintain optimum conditions of temperature and humidity.

Roy et al. El-Ayadi reported that White Leghorn eggs dead-in-shell rates were The implication from the findings of the present study is that the methods of incubation had ificant effect on abnormal chicks hatched. The treatments also had influence on normal chicks hatched. of sound chicks is an indication of success of hatchability. The current study result is disagree with Roy et al.

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The survival rate of the hatched chick for one week for broody hen incubation technique Among the indigenous local fowls, percentage of the chicks hatched died before they reached cockerel or pullet stage and annually percentage of the entire flock die, before the keeper could reap any benefits in terms of meat or eggs. The difference in survival rate between the two incubation techniques were due to the difference in the management practice. The sand incubated chicks were kept in hover, which they were supplemented by kerosene lamp shown a better survival rate whereas, the broody hen are the only source of heat for the chicks Fig.

Cost and Return of the incubation techniques: The costs and returns of the two different incubation techniques are shown in Table 2 and 3. From the study, the cost of production using broody hen was very less than that of sand incubation technique. The broody hen technique cost makes Natural incubation technique is attribute of the broody hen no further heating material are required rather than straw because the hen itself provide all the heat required by the egg in order to develop and hatch.

The total variable cost of sand incubation was higher than the broody hen incubation method, this is due to the difference in capacity and material difference in the two incubation techniques. Although, kerosene lamp were used as a source of heat supplementation for sand incubator in order to hatch a chick and after they transferred in to brooder house up to 2nd weeks of their age which replace the hen function in natural incubation technique.

In this experiment, the gross return derived from the return of day-old-chick sale and unfertile egg sale. The gross return per batch attributed by sand incubator was four times higher than the natural incubation technique Table 3. Whereas, a single hen only incubate an egg for two subsequent production years and can incubate, hatch and brood a chick three times per year. Hot Rome alternative chicks the first batch of incubation, which was including all fixed costs, the gross return per eggs in sand incubation method was greater return from that of the broody hen incubation.

While, the Hot Rome alternative chicks return per eggs in sand incubation was After the 1st batch of incubation, the net returns were increasing and sustained in both of incubation techniques this is due to the production costs not the fixed costs.

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On the 1st year run, the net return was estimated and can incurred by sand incubator which make it sustainable in profitability for the smallholder farmers by making high income for the next seven years of production period. Hatchability percentage were lower in sand incubation method than that of the natural incubation however, it is operated with kerosene fuel.

Although, the sand incubation techniques from the point of and cost of the incubator it could hatch a of chicks per batch eggs and profitability was higher than that of broody hen incubation technique. The researchers gratefully acknowledge Wolaita Sodo University for providing a research grant for this research. We wish to express our special gratitude to Abay Shimelash for his technical support and Professor Solomon Demeke from Jimma University for their advice and encouragement.

We are highly indebted to all staff members of Hawassa poultry breeding Hot Rome alternative chicks distribution centre for their cooperation. Subscribe Today. All Rights Reserved. Research Article. Yonatan Kassu and Netsanet Beyero. Search in Google Scholar. How to cite this article: Yonatan Kassu and Netsanet Beyero, Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 9: DOI: USD: Study on the egg production of Hot Rome alternative chicks Leghorn under intensive, semi-intensive and rural household conditions in Ethiopia.

Rural Dev. Direct Link 2: Tadelle, D. Million, Y. Alemu and K. Peters, Village chicken production systems in Ethiopia: 2. Use patterns and performance valuation and chicken products and socio-economic functions of chicken. Livestock Res. Direct Link 3: Tadelle, D. Indigenous chicken in Ethiopia: Their genetic potential, attempts made in the past for improvement and future areas of research. Ranvig, S. Chowdhury, M. Rashid and M. Faruque, Production of day-old chicks from crossbred chicken eggs by broody hens, rice husk incubator and electric incubator and their rearing up to 6 weeks.

Direct Link 5: Rota, A. Brett, J. Nahar, S. Rahman, Y. Ali, A. Sarwar and K. Fattah, Building and operating a mini-hatchery Sand method -video. Mini-hatchery: A low cost hatching technology. Network for the Veterinarians of Bangladesh, pp: Monthly report on temperature and rainfall distribution for Eastern Ethiopia metrological office. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Statistical Analysis Software Version 9. SAS Institute Inc. Mallorie and N. Brett, Evolution of poultry model-a pathway out of poverty. Swan, Manual on Small-scale Poultry Production. Odiba and E. Ikani, Hatchery management practices in poultry. Extension Bulletin No. Fertility and hatchability as related to quality in Baladi commercial eggs.

Hot Rome alternative chicks

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