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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. research documents that men and women can accurately judge male physical strength from gait, but also that the sexes differ in attractiveness judgments of strong and weak male walkers.
Here, we extend this research to assessments of strong and weak male walkers in Chile, Germany, and Russia. Men and women judged videos of virtual characters, animated with the walk movements of motion-captured men, on strength and attractiveness.
Stronger walkers were judged to be stronger and more attractive than weak walkers, and this effect was independent of country but not sex. Women tended to provide higher attractiveness judgments to strong walkers, and men tended to provide higher attractiveness judgments to weak walkers. In addition, German and Russian participants rated strong walkers most attractive at slow and fast speed. Thus, across countries men and women can assess male strength from gait, although they tended to differ in attractiveness assessments of strong and weak male walkers.
Attractiveness assessments of male gait may be influenced by society-specific emphasis on male physical strength.
Physical strength is a sexually dimorphic, heritable trait Lassek and Gaulin, ; Isen et al. Male strength is positively related to measures of health Fredericksen et al. Thus, physical strength may indicate male quality and may be used in assessments of male competitiveness and mate quality Frederick and Haselton, ; Sell et al. A biomechanical analysis showed that stronger men who displayed larger, more variable, and faster movements with their arms were judged as better dancers by both sexes McCarty et al. More recently, Fink et al.
Fink et al. Thus, both sexes may use physical strength information from gait cues in assessments of male quality and competiveness.
There is little information available about how gait is perceived in different countries, and most investigations of gait are clinical or sports science studies. In addition to strength variation in male walkers, we manipulate walking speed.
Schmitt and Atzwanger reported a positive correlation of walking speed with socioeconomic status in men. Whether an effect of walking speed on perception exists, especially in a sample that is relatively homogeneous in socioeconomic status, is yet unclear. There is mixed opinion about the possible effect of gait speed on perception. If Schmitt and Atzwanger are correct, manipulating gait speed should have an effect on perception, with more positive assessments provided to fast walkers and less positive assessments provided to slow walkers.
However, it is also plausible that faster movements are associated with less positive assessments, as has been reported for dance Weege et al. We hypothesized differences in strength perceptions of strong and weak male walkers, for both men and women, and independent of country. If such differences are observed across cultures, this would suggest a universal capacity to derive perceptions of physical strength from male gait. Following reports Fink et al. With regard to an effect of speed, the study was exploratory, given the lack of evidence from studies.
Gait recordings were obtained from 80 men, aged 18 to 42 years, recruited at Northumbria University United Kingdom Walker SD sexy women part of a large-scale study on body movement in relation to anthropometry and personality for related reports, see Fink et al. No participants reported any injuries that might influence natural movements. Walk movements were recorded with an optical motion-capture system Vicon, Oxford, United Kingdom running Vicon Nexus software. Participants did not receive instructions on how to walk, but were told to remain within a certain area marked with adhesive tape on the floor in a room dedicated to motion-capturing.
A male and a female investigator was present during recordings. Gait recordings were applied to size- and shape-standardized, sex-neutral humanoid characters using Motionbuilder software Autodesk Inc. A sequence of 3 s 4—5 strides was digitally isolated from the middle of each walk sequence. For the selection of strong and weak walkers, we considered only participants for which no issues in post-processing of walk movements were noted e.
Gait assessments at normal speed were collected in Chile, Germany, and Russia. In Germany, video ratings were collected on laptop computers running Medialab v Empirisoft Corp. The videos were embedded in the presentation via a private YouTube with advertisements removed and could be replayed. Judgments of attributes were made in blocks and the order of clips was randomized within each block, with blocks randomized across participants.
There were main effects of walker strength on perceptions of strength and attractiveness. Statistical comparisons of strength and attractiveness perceptions of strong vs. German and Russian participants rated strong walkers higher on attractiveness than weak walkers when viewed at slow and fast speed. At normal speed, German attractiveness ratings of strong walkers were higher than those of Russians, and for weak walkers, Russian attractiveness ratings were higher than those of Germans. The of the present study confirm the ly reported effect of male physical strength on perceptions of strength and attractiveness from gait Fink et al.
Moreover, and in accord with Fink et al. Further, women more than men seem to discriminate between strong and weak Walker SD sexy women when assessing attractiveness. Physically stronger men may al competitiveness in intrasexual conflict, in addition to security, self-confidence, and status, thus providing information that women across countries — at least in samples of industrialized societies — are sensitive to, and show a preference for.
Perceptions of strength distinguished between strong and weak male walkers in all three countries. Perceptions of attractiveness varied between countries and sex, although effect sizes for these interactions were small. Thus, interpretations of country- and sex-specific assessments of male gait attractiveness must be made with caution.
In Chile and Germany, women judge strong male walkers to be more attractive than weak male walkers, whereas in Russia there was no such difference. Thus, we did not include specific measures of, for example, social dominance orientation SDO; Pratto et al. Manipulations of playback speed of gait did not affect strength perceptions of men or women in either country in which they were investigated Germany and Russia. Thus, the assessment of physical strength from gait cues appears to Walker SD sexy women independent of gait speed. German and Russian participants judged strong walkers as more attractive when viewed at slow and fast speed.
Germans tended to judge strong walkers higher on attractiveness than Russians when viewed at normal speed and Russian attractiveness judgments of weak walkers were higher than those of Germans. Again, because of the small effect sizes, these should be interpreted with caution. Walking faster or slower is associated with changes in movement biomechanics, and such changes were not considered in our manipulations.
We demonstrate an effect of male gait on perceived strength in three countries, suggesting that the capacity to derive physical strength information from male gait is not culture-specific. Women more than men seem to discriminate between strong and weak walkers when assessing attractiveness of male gait. Attractiveness assessments of male gait show some local variation, and may be influenced by society-specific emphasis of male physical strength.
Future studies investigating the effect of strength from gait cues on perception should test whether the reported effects extend to pre-industrialized societies.
If this is the case, it would support the suggestion that specific biomechanical characteristics of male gait are linked to physical strength, and that humans may be adapted to use these cues in social perception. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the German Psychological Society. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. In case of minors, consent was additionally obtained from their legal guardians or teachers. BF and MW analyzed the data. All authors edited the manuscript for intellectual content, provided critical comments on the manuscript, and agreed to be able for the content of the work.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Front Psychol. Published online Aug Shackelford 8. Marina L. Todd K.
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This article was submitted to Evolutionary Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jun 16; Accepted Aug 7. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract research documents that men and women can accurately judge male physical strength from gait, but also that the sexes differ in attractiveness judgments of strong and weak male walkers.
Keywords: physical strength, handgrip, gait, attractiveness, male. Introduction Physical strength is a sexually dimorphic, heritable trait Lassek and Gaulin, ; Isen et al. Materials and Methods Gait Recordings and Manipulations Gait recordings were obtained from 80 men, aged 18 to 42 years, recruited at Northumbria University United Kingdom as part of a large-scale study on body movement in relation to anthropometry and personality for related reports, see Fink et al.
Open in a separate window. Table 1 Statistical comparisons of strength and attractiveness perceptions of strong vs. Table 3 Statistical comparisons of strength and attractiveness perceptions of strong vs. Discussion The of Walker SD sexy women present study confirm the ly reported effect of male physical strength on perceptions of strength and attractiveness from gait Fink et al. Conclusion We demonstrate an effect of male gait on perceived strength in three countries, suggesting that the capacity to derive physical strength information from male gait is not culture-specific.
Ethics Statement This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the German Psychological Society. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Fink B. Sex difference in attractiveness perceptions of strong and weak male walkers.
Berlin: Springer;— Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness-indicator hypothesis. Hand grip strength: a phenotype suitable for identifying genetic variants affecting mid- and late-life physical functioning. Handgrip strength predicts sexual behavior, body morphology, and aggression in male college students. Physical strength and gender identification from dance movements.Walker SD sexy women
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Cross-Cultural Investigation of Male Gait Perception in Relation to Physical Strength and Speed